Spain recognized the independence and autonomy of the Mapuche People

Spain recognized the independence and autonomy of the Mapuche People

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On January 6, 1641, the Spanish crown signed the Pact of Quillín, by which it agreed to peace with the Mapuches, to whom it recognized their sovereignty over territories that would later be Chile and Argentina.

The Wenufoye, the flag of the Mapuche people, will fly today in hundreds of communities and thousands of homes in Wallmapu (indigenous territory on both sides of the Cordillera). A new anniversary of the Quillín Pact is commemorated, when Spain signed peace with the Mapuche people and recognized their independence in the territories that centuries later would be Chile and Argentina. In Bariloche there will be an act of remembrance of the repression in Pu Lof in Resistencia de Cushamen and justice will be demanded by Santiago Maldonado and Rafael Nahuel.

"Mapuche ñi antü kom Wallmapu mew", says the convocation in Mapuzungun, which means "Mapuche national day, take out your flag." It refers to January 6, 1641, when after a century of war, with attempts to subdue the Mapuche people, the Spanish crown signed the "Quillín Pact". Francisco López de Zúñiga, governor of Chile, signed peace with lonkos (Mapuche authorities) on the banks of the Quillén River (current province of Cautín, Chile). Among the main points, the Biobío river (at the height of Chos Malal, in Neuquén) was established as a boundary, and Mapuche sovereignty and independence to the south of the river was recognized. The original authorities present were Lonkopichun, Butapichun, Tinaqueaü, Chicaguala and Cheuquenahuel, among others.

The Spanish empire, which had defeated and massacred dozens of indigenous peoples in America, recognized the autonomy and freedom of the Mapuches. The agreement, of which there are only records of the time written by the Spanish side, established that the natives would free the captives, allow Christian religious to enter, and pledged to be allies of Spain against any foreign enemy.

Carlos Contreras Painemal is a researcher, anthropologist and author of "The Treaties concluded by the Mapuche with the Spanish Crown, the Republic of Chile and the Republic of Argentina", a rigorous 355-page work that details, on a documentary basis, the agreements between 1592 and 1878. “The Quillín parliament will become a legal act of enormous importance. From there, a period will open in which the Spanish Crown will seek to consolidate its power, which will be determined by ethnopolitical negotiations that will result in treaties ”, explains Contreras Painemal in his writing.

Contreras Painemal highlights that the treaty was recognized by King Felipe IV, by Royal Decree of April 29, 1643, "which makes it an international legal instrument." Based on documents of the time, he affirms that the agreement was preceded by battles "in which the Spanish experienced the bitter taste of defeat on several occasions." The researcher marks counterpoints to the official account (Spanish): “The Spanish administration tried to minimize its position of agreeing, trying to make it look like a pious concession on the part of the Crown. However, for the Mapuches it was clear that if the Spaniards proposed peace it was out of fear ”.

Adrián Moyano is a researcher and journalist, author of "Chronicles of Mapuche Resistance" and "Inakayal" (among other books on the original people), he contributed a central fact: "Spain recognized Mapuche sovereignty south of Biobío but that agreement is also of interest to Argentines because there was a crowded Puelche delegation (Mapuches east of the Cordillera) that the day after the central event celebrated the same treaty with the Spanish governor. So that recognition transcended the Andes Mountains and extended to the current Argentine jurisdiction. Note the date, 1641. No, the Mapuche did not come from Chile. At that time, Argentina was not in anyone's plans ”.

The wenufoye (blue, green and red, with yellow, black and red Mapuche symbols) will flame in cities and places of Río Negro, Neuquén, Chubut, La Pampa, Mendoza and Buenos Aires. In Bariloche there will be a “trawutuaiñ” (meeting to meet us), on Wednesday the 10th at the Civic Center. They will condemn the first anniversary of the repression by the National Gendarmerie and the Chubut Police on the Pu Lof en Resistencia de Cushamen, considered the "first chapter of a new general offensive against the entire Mapuche people."

During 2017 there were about twenty repressions against the Mapuche communities of Río Negro, Neuquén and Chubut. The most serious cases were the disappearance and death of Santiago Maldonado and the assassination of Rafael Nahuel from behind.

The Minister of Security, Patricia Bullrich, launched a "unified command" (together with the Patagonian governments) to advance against the Mapuche Ancestral Resistance (RAM) organization. No indigenous community acknowledged being part of the RAM, even claiming it to be a creation of the intelligence services. The communities affirm that the government's strategy is to use RAM to advance against the Mapuche people.

377 years after the Pact of Quillín, the Mapuche people will raise their flag, remember the feat, demand the fulfillment of their rights, justice for the murders and demand respect for indigenous territories.

By Daría Aranda
Page 12

Video: Rubén Patagonia en Cosquín 2017 - Grito Mapuche con Soraya Maicoñia (June 2022).


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